About Mongolia

Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It borders Russia to the north and the People’s Republic of China to the south, east and west.

At 1,564,116 square kilometers, Mongolia is the 19th largest and the most sparsely populated independent country in the world, with a population of over 2,7 million people. Mongolia has over 50 million of livestock which consists of sheep, goat, cattle, horse and the Bactrian camel. The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of flat steppes. The country is hot in the summer and extremely cold in the winter. Mongolia has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers and the country averages 257 cloudless days a year.

Mongolia is a parliamentary republic. The parliament is elected by the people in every four years by general election and in turn elects the government. The president is elected directly. Mongolia’s constitution guarantees full freedom of expression, religion and others. Mongolia has a number of political parties; the biggest are being the Democratic Party (DP) and the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP). Mongolia’s president confirms appointed Prime Minister and ambassadors and can block the Parliament’s decisions, who can then overrule the veto by a two-thirds majority. The Prime Minister is elected by the Parliament of Mongolia.

The legal system of Mongolia has changed with the government since the democratic revolution of 1990 and is part of the Romano-Germanic legal tradition.

The court system of Mongolia includes the Supreme Court, regional and other courts established by law. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the judiciary system of Mongolia.

As to population about 59% of the total population is under age 30 and 27% is under age 14 and 30% of the population is nomadic. Ulaanbaatar is the capital, largest city and home to over 40% of the total population. Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% (Khalkha) of the populations and 10% (Buryat, Durvud,) and Turkic speaking Kazakh ethnic and also Russians and Chinese.

The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian, and is spoken by 90% of the population. The most spoken foreign languages are Russian, English, Chinese, Korean, German and Japanese.