Mining in Mongolia
Mongolia has very rich natural and mineral resources and exploitation of these has been increasing in the transition period to the market economy. There are over 8000 deposits of 440 different minerals in Mongolia, of which about 600 deposits and outcrops of resources have been determined so far. A total of 181 gold deposits, 5 copper molybdenum deposits, a lead deposit, 5 tin, 10 steel, iron, 4 silver, magnesium, mica, 3 gypsum, 3 asbect, 3 graphite, 2 bitumen, 42 coal and brown coal, phosphorus, 42 fluorspar, 12 salt, 10 sodium sulphate, 6 semi-precious stone, 9 crystal, about 30 underground water deposits and 205 construction materials, including stone, sand, gravel, limestone, marble, plaster, cement and mineral pigment’s raw materials are found. Exploration works were conducted in about 70 percent of the deposits, and the resources of the deposits were evaluated from an industrial mining point of view.
Over 200 of the aforementioned deposits are being exploited now, of which 24 are non-ferrous metal deposits, 111 are gold, 34 coal, 15 salt and about 50 mineral deposits.
The Mongolian government has identified a number of the largest deposits that have strategic importance for the country and where development of the mining industry should be focused. There are currently fifteen strategic deposits which consist of stone coal, coal and brown coal, uranium, iron ore, copper, molybdenum, phosphorite, gold, zinc, lead and silver throughout Mongolian vast lands. A second wave of a further thirty deposits is being considered.